Saturday, December 23, 2017

नेपाल नविकरणिय उर्जा परिसंघ प्रथम साधारण सभा सम्पन्न

पर्यावरण संरक्षण, लैंगिक समानता र समावेशिताको सिद्धान्तको आधारमा रही ग्रामीण तथा शहरी जनजिवनका लागि आवश्यक उर्जामा सबैको पहुँच पु¥याउनका लागि नविकरणीय उर्जाका श्रोतहरु परिचालन गर्ने, प्रविधिहरु अध्ययन गर्ने, अनुसन्धान गर्ने, विकास गर्ने, प्रवद्र्धन गर्ने, आवश्यकता अनुसार सो संवन्धमा व्यवसायीहरु, प्राविधिकहरु र सर्व साधारणलाई समेत तालिम दिने, र वैकल्पिक उर्जा प्रविधि प्रवद्र्धनका लागि आवश्यक प्रविधि, सामग्री र उपकरण आपूर्ति गर्ने, प्राविधिक सेवा दिने, जडान गर्ने, विक्रीपछि मर्मत सम्भार गर्ने, आदी व्यवसायमा संलग्न निजी क्षेत्रका कम्पनी वा फर्महरुको छाता संगठनहरु, गैरसरकारी संस्थाहरु र लव्ध प्रतिष्ठित प्राविधिकहरु, व्यवसायीहरु र उद्यमीहरुलाई एकै छाता मुनि गोलबन्द भै अध्ययन, अनुसन्धान, सभा, सम्मेलन, कार्यशाला, गोष्ठी, अन्तत्र्रिmया जस्ता कार्यक्रमहरु सञ्चालन गरी व्यवसायिक हक हित रक्षा गर्न एउटा सिंगो संगठनको रुपमा काम गर्न स्वदेशी तथा विदेशी संघ, संस्था, व्यक्तिहरुसँग परामर्श तथा सहयोग लिई दिई सहकार्य समेत गर्न स्थापना गरिएको नेपाल नविकरणीय उर्जा परिसंघको प्रथम साधारण सभा २०७४ पौष ०७ गते शुक्रबार धुलिखेलमा सम्पन्न भयो । नेपाल बायोग्यास प्रवद्र्धन संघ, नेपाल ग्रामीण प्रविधि प्रवद्र्धन संघ, नेपाल लघु जलविद्युत विकास संस्था, नेपाल सौर्य विद्युत उत्पादक संघ, नेपाल सौर्य तापीय उर्जा संघ, जल तथा उर्जा परार्मदाता संघ नेपाल, बायोग्यास सेक्टर पार्टनरशिप नेपाल र श्रोत व्यवस्थापन तथा ग्रामीण सशक्तिकरण केन्द्र (रिमरेक) नविकरणीय उर्जा परिसंघमा आवद्ध रहेका छन् । 
परिसंघको साधारण सभाको उद्घाटन पूर्व मन्त्री तथा परिसंघका सल्लाहकार संयोजक गणेश शाहले गर्नुभयो । उक्त अवसरमा बोल्दै शाहले नविकरणीय उर्जा प्रविधि र व्यापकता विश्वभरि नै परिवर्तनशील रहेको र नेपालले प्राप्त गर्ने अवसरहरु सदुपयोग गर्न परिसंघ एउटा माध्यम भै संवन्धित निकाय तथा संघ संस्थाहरुमा कार्य सहजताको वातावरण निर्माण परिसंघबाट अग्रसरताका साथ पहल गर्नुपर्ने विचार व्यक्त गर्नुभयो । सबैले नेपालीले नविकरणीय उर्जा बारे जानकारी प्राप्त गर्न, उपयोगको लागि पहुँच हुन र लगानीका लागि अवसर सिर्जना गर्नका लागि संवद्ध निकायहरु, सरोकारवालाहरु र परिसंघकोको तदारुकता आवश्यक छ भन्नु भयो ।
वैकल्पिक उर्जा प्रवद्र्धन केन्द्रका निर्देशक नवराज ढकालले वैकल्पिक उर्जा प्रवद्र्धन गर्नमा केन्द्र सफल रहेको बताउँदै आगामाी दिनमा संघीय संरचना अन्तर्गत संघीय, प्रादेशिक तथा स्थानीय सरकारहरुका साथ सहकार्य गर्दै वैकल्पिक उर्जा प्रवद्र्धनका लागि कार्यक्रमहरु सञ्चालन गर्ने र निजी क्षेत्रको सहयोग रसहकायृबाट यस अघिका कार्यक्रमहरु सफल रहेको र निजी क्षेत्रका साथ अघि बढन परिसंघको पनि सहयोग र सदभाव रहने छ भन्ने विश्वास व्यक्त गर्नुभयो ।
उक्त अवसरमा पूर्व उर्जा सचिव तथा संघीय संरचना निर्माण आयोगका प्रमुख बालानन्द पौडेलले मुलुकलाई उर्जाको माध्यमबाट समृद्ध बनाउन सकिने भएकोले मिश्रित उर्जा प्रविधिमा केन्द्रित भै स्थानीय सरकारहरुका साथ काम गर्न सहज वातावरण निर्माण गर्न परिसंघको महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका हुनसक्ने भएको औँल्याउनु भयो । 
प्रा.डा. प्रेम शर्मा, नबिन भुजेलले पनि नविकरणीय उर्जा प्रविधिको उत्थान र सबैको पहुँचमा पुग्न परिसंघबाट कार्यक्रमहरु अघि बढाउनु उपयुक्त हुनेछ भन्नु भयो । 
वातावरण तथा जलवायु परिवर्तन विज्ञ तथा अभियन्ता मञ्जित ढकालले सोही अवसरमा हालै जर्मनीको बोनमा सम्पन्न जलवायु परिवर्तन संवन्धि कोप २३ सम्मेलनमा भएका गरिएका गहन संवाद र सम्मेलनमा उठेका उठाइएका विवाद र सहमतिहरुको व्याख्या गर्दै नेपाल प्राप्त गर्न सक्ने अवसरहरुका चर्चा गर्नुभयो । त्यस महत्वपूर्ण विश्व भेलाबाट कम विकसित राष्ट्रहरु र नेपालले जलवायु परिवर्तन न्युनिकरण र अनुकुलनका लागि सहयोग प्राप्त गर्न विगतका कोप २१ बाट प्रतिपादित पेरिस सहमति क्रियाशील गराउन पनि पहल गरिएको जानकारी गराउनु भयो । आजै गुण राज ढकालको अध्यक्षतामा कार्यकारी समितिको निर्वाचन सम्पन्न भयो । आगामी दुई वर्षको कार्यकालको लागि भएको उक्त निर्वाचनबाट तपसिल बमोजिम को कार्यसमिति निर्वाचित गरेको छ ।
अध्यक्ष : गुण राज ढकाल, जल तथा उर्जा परार्मदाता संघ नेपाल 
उपाध्यक्ष: उत्तम सिटौला, नेपाल सौर्य विद्युत उत्पादक संघ
कोषाध्यक्ष: हस्त पण्डित, नेपाल ग्रामीण प्रविधि प्रवद्र्धन संघ
सदस्य: केशव राज खनाल, नेपाल सौर्य तापीय उर्जा संघ
सदस्य: कृष्ण प्रसाद देवकोटा, नेपाल लघु जलविद्युत विकास संस्था
सदस्य:  विश्व राज कार्की, बायोग्यास सेक्टर पार्टनरशिप नेपाल
सदस्य: तेज नारायण ठाकुर, नेपाल लघु जलविद्युत विकास संस्था
सदस्य: ऋषब राज आचार्य, नेपाल बायोग्यास प्रवद्र्धन संघ

सदस्य: कृष्ण प्रसाद पराजुली, नेपाल सौर्य विद्युत उत्पादक संघ


Dhakal elected Chair of Nepal Renewable Energy Confederation

RECoN urged to bridge RE stakeholders First AGM concluded
Renewable Energy Confederation of Nepal (RECoN) had orgnised its first annual general meeting on Friday December 22, 2017 at Dhulikhel.
The meeting was inaugurated by Former Minister Er. Ganesh Shah. On the occasion chief guest Shah said that the confederation should be able to collaborate with the government agencies and other institutions including private sector in strengthening the knowledge management and work force for the desire development and delivery of renewable energy technologies to all citizens. The existing systems and the style now have been needed to be renovated to suite with the changes in the constitutional provisions and desires of the end-users of the energy. He also stressed that every citizen should have opportunities on knowledge on modern form of energy, access to energy and investment for energy.
Mr.Nawa Raj Dhakal, the director at Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC) elaborating the achievements of AEPC in its 21 years lauded the private sector for the meaningful involvement as partnership in alternative energy promotion. The movement should be further strengthened in the present context where private sector could play more important roles by taking part in entrepreneurship as well. As such, role of the confederation should be well off in lobby, advocacy, opinion building and knowledge sharing with experts, professional and the commoners, Dhakal opined.      
On the occasion, Mr. Balanand Paudel who headed the Local Body Restructuring Commission said that the renewable energy movement must pay attentions to work with federal government, provincial governments and local governments so as maximum plans and programmes could be carried out. The local bodies have become much instrumental in promotion of renewable energy technologies also and they need to avail adequate knowledge on renewable energy technologies. He also stressed the need of renewable energy to develop for the economic prosperity of country and people.
Analysing the vulnerable condition of energy generation is in country at present situation Paudel said that the there is high risk from the point of view of national economy. Thus, the course of interdependency may be preferred and this has to be taken seriously. Improvement in energy generation drive also has to carry the spirit of energy mix for the energy security for the futurists approach, Paudel opined.
He also remarked that the cost of energy generation may be reduced by scaling up efficiency level. Private sector which has to be the most active segment must not be undermined in the course of national development. This sector longs for rightful profit against the service and entrepreneurship, Paudel said.
Mr. Nabin Bhujel, private sector entrepreneur said that time has come to private sector to be integrated to avail the best of technologies at affordable price. The confederation, therefore, needs to play bridging role for lobby, advocacy and opinion building of the stakeholders including government, non-government, private sector and professionals as well.
Climate change expert and lobbyist Mr. Manjeet Dhakal presented the activities and outcomes of the CoP 23, the global event recently organized in Bonn, Germany. He described the Nepal position and the possible benefits and support to be extended to Nepal. Private sector should put efforts in tapping the funding opportunities in climate change for the renewable energy promotion in Nepal, he explained.
The agm programme was presided over by chairperson of RECoN Guna Raj Dhakal. The meeting discussed and endorsed the progress reports presented by of General Secretary Padam Dulal and Treasurer Hasta Pandit. The meeting also approved the plan of actions of RECoN for the coming year.
The agm unanimously elected the executive office bearers and members for two years where Mr. Guna Raj Dhakal has been elected as the chairman and Mr. Uttam Sitaula, Mr. Padam Dulal and Mr. Hasta Pandit were elected  for the post of vice chairman, general secretary and treasurer respectively. The executive committee members elected are Mr. Krishna Prasad Devkota, Mr. Tej Narayan Tahkur, Mr. Reeshab Raj Acharya, Mr. Gokul Gautam, Mr. K.R. Khanal, Mr. Bishwaraj Karki and Mr Krishna Prasad Parajuli were elected for the posts of executive committee members.
Renewable Energy Confederation of Nepal (RECoN) is a common forum of associations of private sector involved in supplying and delivering alternative energy service and NGOs involved in promotion of alternative energy in Nepal. It works as an umbrella organization of associations of private sector who are committed to lobby and advocacy and are highly dedicated in enabling environment to safe guard the rights and wellbeing of professionals and practitioners involved in renewable energy value chain.
Before the formal registration, RECoN was active as Renewable Energy Coordination Committee (RECC) for six years in strengthening the private sector dedicated to available renewable energy technologies to the users and users' communities. The people residing at remote hills, mountains, high mountains and Terai and urban areas are benefitted with the technologies availed.
RECoN had recently initiated dialogues with experts, professionals, academia in RE sectors which turned out to be a successful event in finding out gaps and practicable and appropriate solutions for the future course of action in renewable energy value chain. RECoN is also committed to put forward the promising ideas and opinions produced from the interactions and discussions to policy making and planning authorities.
RECoN plans for working together with international and national organisations for betterment of renewable energy in Nepal and share knowledge and experience in the country and abroad. Thus, the confederation has initiated collaboration with development partners to create synergy in boosting renewable energy technology.
In this process RECoN has been collaborating Center for Rural Technology (CRT) Nepal in the project titled “Green and Inclusive Energy (GIE) Programme (Nepal Project)” which aims to strengthen the lobby and advocacy capacity of CSO’s in low and lower middle income countries. ENERGIA and IIED are implementing partners of the GiE programme. (Text by R. P. Narayan)

Friday, July 28, 2017

नवीकरणीय ऊर्जा परिसंघ नेपाल को स्थापना

काठमाडौं, साउन १३ । पर्यावरण संरक्षण, लैंगिक समानता र समावेशीताको सिद्धान्तको आधारमा रही ग्रामीण तथा शहरी जनजीवनका लागि आवश्यक ऊर्जामा सबैको पहुँच पु¥याउनका निम्ति नवीकरणीय ऊर्जा परिसंघ नेपालको स्थापना गरिएको छ ।
नेपाल बायोग्यास प्रवद्र्धन संघ, नेपाल ग्रामीण प्रविधि प्रवद्र्धन संघ, नेपाल लघु जलविद्युत विकास संघनेपाल सौर्य विद्युत उत्पादक संघ, नेपाल सौर्य तापीय ऊर्जा संघ, जल तथा ऊर्जा परार्मदाता संघ नेपाल र फोरम अफ रिन्युवल इनर्जी एसोसियसनस जस्ता संस्था नेपाल नवीकरणीय ऊर्जा परिसंघमा आवद्ध रहेका छन् । त्यसैगरी समान उद्देश्यका छाता संस्थाको रुपमा रहेका संघ संस्थाहरु परिसंघमा आवद्ध हुनसक्ने प्रावधान रहेको छ ।
यसअघि नविकरणीय ऊर्जा समन्वय समितिका नामले नवीकरणीय ऊर्जा प्रविधि प्रवद्र्धनका लागि विभिन्न सरकारी, गैरसरकारी र दातृ निकायका साथ समन्वयात्मक भूमिका निर्वाह गर्दै आएको थियो । पाँच वर्षको सक्रियतापश्चात परिवर्तित परिप्रेक्ष्यमा समयसापेक्ष रुपमा सघन रुपले क्रियाशील हुन र नवीकरणीय ऊर्जा प्रविधि सबैका लागि उपलब्ध तुल्याई कृषि, सिँचाइ, खानेपानी, स्वास्थ्य, शिक्षा, सञ्चार, साना तथा घरेलु उद्योग तथा यातायात जस्ता आर्थिक सामाजिक उत्थानका महत्वपूर्ण पक्षलाई पनि सवल तुल्याउन नवीकरणीय ऊर्जा परिसंघ सचेतना, उत्प्रेरणा र समन्वयका लागि विभिन्न कार्यक्रम सञ्चालन गर्दै आएको छ ।
परिसंघले नवीकरणीय ऊर्जाका स्रोतहरु परिचालन गर्ने, प्रविधिहरु अध्ययन गर्ने, अनुसन्धान गर्ने, विकास गर्ने, प्रवद्र्धन गर्ने, आवश्यकताअनुसार सो सम्बन्धमा व्यवसायीहरु, प्राविधिकहरु र सर्वसाधारणलाई समेत तालिम दिनेछ । त्यस्तै वैकल्पिक ऊर्जा प्रविधि प्रवद्र्धनका लागि आवश्यक प्रविधि, सामग्री र उपकरण आपूर्ति गर्ने, प्राविधिक सेवा दिने, जडान गर्ने, बिक्रीपछि मर्मत सम्भार गर्नेलगायत व्यवसायमा संलग्न निजी क्षेत्रका कम्पनी वा फर्महरुको छाता संगठन, गैरसरकारी संस्थाहरु, प्राविधिक र व्यवसायी एकै छातामुनि गोलबन्द भइ अध्ययन, अनुसन्धान, सभा, सम्मेलन, कार्यशाला, गोष्ठी, अन्तत्र्रिmया जस्ता कार्यक्रम सञ्चालन गरी व्यावसायिक हकहित रक्षा गर्न एउटा सिंगो संगठनको रुपमा काम गर्न स्वदेशी तथा विदेशी संघ, संस्था, व्यक्तिसँग परामर्श तथा सहयोग लिई दिई सहकार्य समेत गर्न उद्धेश्य लिएको छ ।
वैकल्पिक ऊर्जा नेपालको सन्दर्भमा राष्ट्रिय विद्युत् प्रसारण सञ्जाल अर्थात नेसनल ग्रिड नपुगेका वा पुग्न नसक्ने अति दुर्गम, दुर्गम वा सुगम गाउँ बस्तीमा बसोबास गर्ने जनताका लागि आवश्यक ऊर्जा उपलब्ध हुनसक्ने प्रविधि हुन् । पेल्ट्रिक सेटसमेतका लघु जलविद्युत् प्रविधि, सौर्य फोटो भोल्टेक, सौर्य तापीय, गोबर ग्यास मुख्य प्रविधिको रुपमा चलन चल्तीमा आएका हुन् ।
सरकारले वैकल्पिक ऊर्जाको विकास र विस्तारको लागि व्यापकता ल्याउने नीति कार्यान्वयनमा ल्याएपश्चात सार्वजनिक– निजी साझेदारी (पीपीपी) नीतिअन्तर्गत दुई दशक अगाडिदेखि नै नवीकरणीय ऊर्जा प्रविधिलाई अभियानको रुपमा अगाडि बढाएपछि यस क्षेत्रमा काम गरिरहेका निजी कम्पनी र फर्महरुका साथै गैरनाफामूलक संस्थाहरुले विभिन्न आ–आफ्ना छाता संस्थासमेत निर्माण गरी नवीकरणीय ऊर्जा क्षेत्रको संस्थागत विकासमा महत्वपूर्ण र प्रभावकारी भूमिका निर्वाह गर्दै आएका छन् ।

सरकारबाट नवीकरणीय ऊर्जा प्रवद्र्धन गर्न प्राविधक तथा आर्थिक सहयोग उपलब्ध गर्न दुई दशक अघि स्थापना गरेको वैकल्पिक ऊर्जा प्रवद्र्धन केन्द्रसँग नेपाल नवीकरणीय ऊर्जा परिसंघ समन्वायात्मक सहकार्य गर्दै आएको छ ।
यसैगरी महिला तथा गरिब र पिछडिएका वर्गका लागि ऊर्जामा पहुँच जोड दिँदै नेडरल्यान्डसको हिभोक भन्ने संस्था र इनर्जियाले हरित तथा समावेशी ऊर्जा कार्यक्रम नेपालमा सेन्टर फर रुरल टेकनोलोजी नेपालसँग सहकार्य गर्दै कार्यक्रम सञ्चालन गरिरहेको छ । नेपाल नवीकरणीय ऊर्जा परिसंघ सो कार्यक्रमको एक साझेदार पक्षको रुपमा क्रियाशील छ ।
संस्थाले चालू आर्थिक वर्षका लागि सरकारको बजेटमा के कस्तो व्यवस्था भएको छ र उच्चतम् उपलब्धिका लागि सरोकारवाला निकायको भूमिका र सक्रियताको लागि विज्ञहरु र व्यवसायीको सहभागितामा संवाद कार्यक्रम सञ्चालन गरेको छ । मुलुक संघीय स्वरुपमा अघि बढिसकेको सन्दर्भमा केन्द्रीय, प्रादेशिक र स्थानीय निकायबाट नवीकरणीय ऊर्जा प्रविधि प्रवद्र्धन गर्दै सबैको लाभिको लागि के कस्तो नीति र विधि अवलम्बन गर्नु उपयुक्त हुन्छ भन्ने सन्वन्धमा पनि विज्ञ र व्यवसायीको उपस्थितिमा संवाद कार्यक्रम सञ्चालन गर्दै आएको छ ।
त्यस्तै नवीकरणीय ऊर्जा प्रविधिबाट कृषि क्षेत्रमा उपयुक्त उपलब्धि हासिल गर्न सकिने गरी प्रविधि र उपकरण सुलभ तुल्याउनका लागि पनि विज्ञहरु र व्यवसायीबीच संवाद गराउनुका साथै नवीकरणीय ऊर्जा प्रविधि उपयोग गर्ने लक्षित वर्गले प्रविधि र उपकरण प्राप्त गर्नका लागि अनुदान सहयोग र ऋणको उत्कृष्टतम व्यवस्थापन गर्न बैंकिङ क्षेत्रका लगानीकर्ताबीच पनि छलफल गराएको छ ।
शहरी क्षेत्रमा उत्पादन हुने फोहर सबैको लागि समस्या भएको तर त्यसबाट ग्यास तथा बिजुली उत्पादन गर्न सकिने प्रविधि प्रयोगमा ल्याउनु उपयुक्त हुने साथै कृषि उत्पादनबाट निस्किने फाल्ने गरिएका वस्तुबाट र वन जंगलबाट उत्पादनबाट निस्किने फाल्ने वस्तुबाट ऊर्जा उत्पादन गर्ने प्रविधि प्रयोगमा ल्याउनका लागि नेपाल नवीकरणीय ऊर्जा परिसंघले विज्ञहरु र व्यवसायीबीच संवाद गर्दै आएको जनाएको छ ।
खानेपानी र सिँचाइको लागि बर्षातको पानी सञ्चय गर्ने प्रविधि शहरी एवं ग्रामीण क्षेत्रका जनता उपयुक्त हुनेबारे पनि परिसंघले विज्ञहरु र व्यवसायीहरुको सहभागितामा संवाद कार्यक्रम गर्दै आएको छ ।
कार्यक्रमबाट प्राप्त परामर्श र निष्कर्ष सम्बन्धित निकायलाई उपलब्ध गराई आवश्यक नीति निर्माण र कार्यक्रम सञ्चालन गर्नका लागि समन्वय गर्नका लागि परिसंघले आवश्यक तयारी गरिरहेको जनाएको छ ।

Monday, August 10, 2015

The Renewable Energy Source That’s About to Boom Again

‘Whether we like it or not, over the next 20 years roughly the world will double its hydropower capacity’
Ten years ago hydropower might have been taken for dead in the United States. Environmentalists didn’t want hydropower dams because of the destruction they wreaked on nearby ecosystems. Energy companies had lost interest because hydropower wouldn’t produce enough energy to make the investment worthwhile. Indeed, in every decade since the 1970s, the U.S. has added less hydropower capacity than the decade prior.
But now energy experts say that new ways of thinking about hydropower has placed the energy source on the verge of a resurgence in the U.S. Hydropower production is anticipated to grow by more than 5% in 2016 alone, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration.
“There has been more interest in the last few years. There are a lot of projects being considered,” said Rocío Uria-Martinez, an energy researcher at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. “Hydropower is, or it can be, a very viable complement for the other renewables.” The U.S. has some 80,000 dams, and only 2,000 are being used to harness electricity, according to Uria-Martinez. Adaptations to existing dams could drive a 15 to 20% increase in total hydropower capacity in the U.S. At the same time, adapting dams saves the cost of building new ones from the ground up.
While experts anticipate dramatic growth in hydropower in the coming years, don’t expect to see another Hoover Dam anytime soon. “Building large dams is almost out of the question in the U.S. and in Europe because of environmental constraints,” said Uria-Martinez. Energy policymakers have focused instead on developing sustainable hydropower dams, which are typically on a small scale. In some communities this means installing hydropower capabilities to existing dams that have never produced electricity.
In some areas, increasing dam efficiency has meant eliminating dams that harm the environment and replacing them with more sustainable ones. ThePenobscot River in Maine, for instance, had several dams over hundreds of miles of river, many of which were operated inefficiently. Seven conservation groups teamed up and employed scientists to consider how to increase energy production and, at the same time, eliminate some dams. In the end, the group ended up dismantling two dams while achieving the same energy output with the remaining ones.
“We got the river to produce exactly the same amount of hydropower as before but with 1,000 km of connected river,” said Giulio Boccaletti, who runs the water program at the Nature Conservancy. He argues that similar results can be reached in other places around the world.
“Whether we like it or not, over the next 20 years, roughly, the world will double its hydropower capacity,” he said. “How do you intervene in a world where saying no to that development is simply not an option? I think there’s appetite for a more sustainable outcome.”
In the early stages of electricity production in the U.S., hydropower played an important role. Communities first used free-flowing water to harness electricity in the late 19th century. In need of electricity, communities across the country built dams to harness the power of free-flowing water during the first half of the 20th century. In the 1960s, heightened environmental consciousness piqued American interest in conservation, and hydropower quickly fell out of favor. The timing worked well as few good sites for hydropower dams remained.
Source : Time

Sunday, August 2, 2015

Failure Cases of Micro Hydro Projects, How and Who is responsible

AEPC and its programmes have now started to focus more on solar and wind technologies to provide decentralized electricity, again heading from mistakes towards blunders
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Although this is a very sad case, this is also a representative case about the development of micro hydro projects all over the country. Being a staunch believer about the prospect of the decentralized micro hydropower development in the country, I tried to collect some information about the main causes of failures of these exceptionally country suitable, proven and indigenous technology in our country. In fact, the micro hydropower technology could be considered as the Nepalese identity as well if the projects were implemented as per its aspirations, but alas, all in vain.
As reported, the Rural Energy Development Programme of the UNDP Nepal had started to fund for the installations of the MHP since 1998 in five VDCs at once, namely Bhoksing, Bhuktangle, Kyang, Bachcha and Pangrang. Two projects viz. Chhahare and Chharchhare Khola each of 6 and 9 kW were said to have been supported by the REDP. The cost at that time was almost 1.5 million for Chhahare Khola and two million rupees for Chharchhare Khola micro hydro. The cost was very high at that time; however, the project justified the high cost as these were the demonstration projects, the projects that could be replicated in other feasible parts of the country! The main reasons for the failure of the projects were the lack of technical know-how amongst the engineers involved, their insincerity and negligence to work, tendency to falsely report that everything is done excellently as well as indifferent but the selfish nature of the CTA who only believed works in papers rather than in actual deeds. But the main reason behind all these failures remained the non-transparent motives of the personnel involved!! Perhaps, the works of INGOs and development partners including the UNDP focuses more on touting on unrealistic successes than bringing on surface the real facts. As reported, the micro hydros were and still are required to be promoted in such areas where the possibility of extension of national grid is not foreseen at least for ten to fifteen years from the date of planning. The financial viability of any MH project is assessed considering the 15 years of minimum life of the project, although the scheme could run for generations with regular repair and maintenance. These two projects were problematic from the very beginning as the site planning was carried out exceptionally in a wrong way. The flow was measured 15 liter per second (lps) for Chhahare Khola and 20 lps of Chharchhare Khola MHPs. As known, there is no discharge at all in these streams during dry seasons. Even in wet seasons, the water is utilized for irrigation and there is little left for power generation. The Gautam Engineering Co that was offered the job of supply n installation was a newly prequalified company at that time for the installation works which had no required experiences for manufacturing of pelton turbines at all. So, these projects never ever produced the required amount of power, however, the subsidy as well as other financial supports were provided to these schemes with wide dissemination of news about the development of successful demonstration projects in the district. In fact, these two sites were hardly suitable for the installation of pico hydro projects.
The Ghatte Khola MHDS in Kyang was reported to have produced 16 kW with a cost of some three million rupees (including voluntary labour) during 2001. The water source in the detailed project report differs from the one that is now utilizing the water for power generation. The Technical Officer went to the site to fix the can alignment during pre-monsoon month and as he saw some landslides in the proposed canal alignment, he chose the different water source located on the west part of the village, in consultation with the district manager, and thus fixed the new canal alignment. The projects and the subsidy are approved based on the features and findings mentioned in the DPR. There is so called Technical Review Committee, a high level committee of MHP specialists of the country, to review and suggest improvements upon requirement and give its final approval for implementation!! Except for the load center, all the parameters of the project differed. The problem in this project is again the flow in the stream which is far less than the design flow of 55 lps. As the length of earthen canal (mostly existing) was 800 meters, whatever water remains at source/ intake is completely lost during conveyance. But the most problematic part is the selection of the VDC itself for programme implementation as it is a neighboring Shivalaya VDC (district headquarters with national grid) and adjacent VDC to Bhukatangle, where a 14 MW Modi hydropower Project was on the verge of completion during the time. So, it was very obvious that the national grid might have extended in Kyang within a year or so in the VDC. VDCs for MH installations in the REDP were mostly selected in view of ease to reach the site for programme personnel in the pretext that the sites were chosen to demonstrate the real effects and impacts of MHP to aspiring communities.
The Bachha Khola II of Pangrang was commissioned in 2001 that was said to have produced 11 kW that cost around 2 million rupees. Almost all the projects in Parvat seem to have been offered to Gautam Engineering, a new entrant in the MHP sector by the District Energy Section. All the subsidy and amounts were paid to the supplier after the power output verification. But, after two years, it was revealed that the MH system never produced more than 3 kW, even during rainy season. The company later changed the turbine confessing its shortcomings; however, the plant never produced more than 5 kW. As the number of beneficiaries were just 50 households, the power was felt sufficient, hence the community people did not thought it a big issue, as they had only provided some voluntary labour for the project.
The Aguwa Khola MH Demonstration Scheme (12 kW) in Saraunkhola VDC was commissioned in 2002 with a total project cost of some 205 million rupees (including local labour cost). This project never produced more than 4 kW of power although the payment was made for 12 kW after completing the full procedure of commissioning and power output verification!! This project was also installed by Gautam Engineering Works of Butwal. As in most of the MHP projects in the country, this project also used an earthen irrigation canal that was some 3 km in length. The design discharge was taken as 30 lps which was mostly consumed for irrigation during wet seasons and there remained no flow at forebay during dry periods. All the water used to get lost in conveyance due to spillage and evaporation. This project remained closed for about four years during the period of conflict in the country.
Another project in Bachha VDC was Bachha Khola MHDS to produce 19 kW, again by Gautam Enginering Works. Bachha VDC was not too far from the district headquarters and there existed high chances for grid extension within couple of years. Thus, the selection of VDC was wrong with a wrong motive too! This project could not run satisfactorily from the very first day owing to one or the other problem. As the water was very scarce in the area, not enough for irrigation, the power generation did not naturally get any priority.
Other VDCs selected were Huwas and Dhuwakot during 2006 when the national grid extension was in progress in the vicinity. These two projects also could not produce required amount of power of 12 and 16 kW respectively due to wrong assessment of flow (46 and 68 lps respectively) with long irrigation conveyance systems of earthen type having length of 2.6 kms and 1.3 kms respectively. Still all these so called Demonstration Projects were heavily touted as highly successful projects (pls try to revisit the Annual Project Reports (very thick and shiny of REDP of the years). The above mentioned projects could never benefit the local community people, on the contrary, they tried very hard every time to bring into operation, but in vain. The resources from the VDCs and DDC Parvat were also heavily injected in these projects as the DDC Parvat used to get royalty form Modi Hydropower project in later years, but nothing helped to operationalise these borne-sick projects. Thus, national grid was extended in all the project areas. The REDP tried to cover up its wrongdoings and shortcomings by falsely promising to sell the power to NEA thru connecting these MHPs to national grid. Various studies were conducted hiring expensive consultants too for the purpose. And to manage all those kinds of works, the REDP moved forward to transform all the MHP management committees into MH Cooperatives as the programme considered the cooperative a panacea to get rid from all the ills and problems. Again, heavy resources were poured to transform these Committees into cooperatives which the REDP loudly touted as great success to bring miracle in micro hydro arena. All the stakeholders were trained, workshops and seminars were conducted at all levels to tout this ‘visionary initiative’. Despite all those efforts and pouring of millions of precious resources, nothing was yielded.
Story of Thado Khola Demonstration Project (27 kW), in Bhukatangle:
The Thado Khola Micro Hydro Demonstration Scheme was launched in one of the accessible VDC of Parvat- Bhukatangle, in the year 1998 where the NEA was on the verge of commissioning a 14 MW Modi Hydropower project. It was commissioned in 2000 with the total cost of some four million rupees. As reported the project was to produce 27 kW of power. At a time when the NEA was erecting the transmission lines to the cover the whole VDC and adjoining VDCs like Kyang, the REDP selected this VDC with ill motive and wrong intentions. With the aim of illuminating the area ahead of the NEA grid, the district REDP expedited the work such that community was not required to construct the canal. The district REDP, instead of excavating the canal, bought some 800 meters of high duty (heavy wall thickness HDPE pipes of 8 kgf/cm2) with 300 mm OD (large size and costly). The flow for power generation was considered as 35 lps from a small spring source, thus suffered heavily during dry seasons. But the less flow never became a problem since the project never came into operation as the national grid started to provide electricity to the entire community. The height for power generation was also found to be around 125 m as against 155 meters mentioned in the DPR. The REDP tried to pacify the local community people and other stakeholders by cajoling them with the idea of selling the electricity to the NEA. For that to happen, the REDP again hired expensive consultants to conduct study for grid connection. Again, as medicine to all ills of MHP, the programme poured resources heavily to transform local electricity committee into MH Cooperative. The attempt to connect was lauded as a pilot project to open up door to other projects of grid reaching areas. Various workshops and seminars were conducted to highlight the visionary and pioneering work of grid inter-connection. Despite so much hulla –baloo, nothing happened on the ground. Thus, like all other projects in the district, this one of the most costly project of time was abandoned to wait its natural death.
Although all the MHP projects in the district were wrongly planned and surveyed, however, these projects got huge precious resources from different stakeholders, including the local bodies. In spite of that, all these so called demonstration schemes were a total flop and remained as a black mark in the sphere of micro hydro community. But, the biter fact was the donor-the UNDP and its project never considered to acknowledge their shortcomings, instead are making high sounds about the achievements in the district.
For doing marvelous works to develop such highly successful demonstration MH schemes, the UNDP/ REDP highly regarded the works of the district engineers and rewarded them by providing them good transfers, promotions as well as sending them abroad for higher studies. These extraordinary personalities are non other than the ex AEPC Director and incumbent AEPC Director. The then District Programme Manager Mr. Narayan Chaula-gaine was transferred to district Tanahun where he again became successful to develop other demonstration MH schemes like in Parvat, whereas Mr. Ram Prasad Dhat-Tal  was promoted to work as District Manager in Bajura district, the district of micro hydro disasters!!  As if that reward was not enough, they both were strongly recommended and facilitated to pursue higher studies in Germany by the REDP NPM Mr. Kira n Man Sin. The REDP central level officials who so intensely and effectively provided their high level of technical inputs and carried out vigorous monitoring works were duly regarded and rewarded by the REDP/ UNDP, who now occupy higher positions in UNDP and its programmes. This is the  demonstrative example of how the development is brought by our development partners in Nepal.
The case in Parvat district is not the only one. Similar situations or even worse have been observed in districts like Tanahun, Dhading, Kavre, Dadeldhura, Bajura, Pyuthan, Tehrathum and many more, where the programme provided high focus and injected heavy resources. Do not talk about the Far-west or Mid-west regions where the entire region is a complete failure and total flop with respect to MHP development, an extremely sad situation. One of the reasons was that there existed influential leaders from various political parties or high ranking AEPC, GoN’s officials from those districts and the concerned REDP personnel chose better to dance to the tune of these chameleon officials rather than work for the sake of down trodden community people! 
Having tired of covering its wrong doings and failure cases as well as being unsuccessful to develop really sound and sustainable MHP schemes in remote and needy locations, the AEPC and its programmes have now started to focus more on solar and wind technologies to provide decentralized electricity, again heading from mistakes towards blunders!!!
- See more at: http://urjanews.com/details/2599/Failure-Cases-of-Micro-Hydro-Projects%2C-How-and-Who-is-responsible#sthash.NiwyGm3g.dpuf

पर्वतका सबैजसो जलविद्युत् बन्द

मर्मतमा सम्बन्धित निकायले चासो दिएनन्
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पर्वत जिल्लाका ग्रामीण क्षेत्रमा दशकअघि निर्माण भएका सबैजसो लघु जलविद्युत् आयोजनाहरू बन्द भएका छन्। स्थानीय उपभोक्ता समिति र साझेदार निकायको लापरबवाहीले आयोजना बन्द भएका हुन्।
स्थानीयकै श्रमदानमा निर्माण भएका १३ वटा लघु जलविद्युत् परियोजनामध्ये अहिले मुस्किलले एउटा आयोजना मात्रै सञ्चालनमा रहेको भए पनि नियमित छैन। बाँकी कुनै पनि आयोजना सञ्चालनमा छैनन्। जिल्ला विकास समितिको लघु ऊर्जा कार्यक्रम अन्तर्गत निर्माण भएका १२ वटा आयोजना बन्द हुँदा अहिलेसम्मको करिव तीन करोडभन्दा बढी रकम खेर गएको हो। आयोजनाहरू निर्माणका लागि स्थानीयहरूले गरेको करोडौं रुपैयाँ बराबरको श्रमदान समेत खेर गएको छ।
दुर्गमका बस्तीमा ‘उज्यालो कार्यक्रम’ सञ्चालन गर्न विभिन्न दातृ निकायहरूको सहयोगमा जिविसको ऊर्जा शाखाले १६ वर्षअघिदेखि गाउँगाउँमा लघु जलविद्युत् आयोजनाहरू निर्माण गरेको थियो। ०५६ देखि ०६३ सम्म विभिन्न गाविसमा गरी १३ आयोजनाहरू निर्माण भएका थिए। तीमध्ये अहिले भोक्सिङको छहरेखोला मुस्किलले चलेको छ। बाँकी सबै आयोजनाहरू बन्द भएसँगै तत्कालीन समयको एक सय ६२ किलोवाट विद्युत् उत्पादन रोकिएको छ। विद्युत् आयोजनाहरू बन्द भएसँगै दुर्गमका दुई गाविसका सर्वसाधारणहरू अन्धकारमै रात बिताउन बाध्य छन्।
उज्यालो कार्यक्रमअन्तर्गत २०५६ सालमा भोक्सिङमा ६ र ९ किलोवाट क्षमताका छहरे र छर्छरेखोला विद्युत् आयोजना निर्माण गरी ग्रामीण क्षेत्रमा विद्युतीकरण सुरु गरिएको थियो। त्यसपछि ०५७ सालमा भोक्सिङको छहरेखोला ९२७ किलोवाट०, ०५८ मा क्याङको घट्टेखोला ९१६० विद्युत् आयोजना निर्माण भएका थिए। त्यसपछि पाङ्राङमा बाच्छाखोला ‘ए’ ९१९० र ‘बी’९११०, सरौंखोलामा अगुवाखोला ९१२०, बाच्छामा आम्दीखोला ९२१०, पाङ्राङमा गढिसिद्धीखोला ९७।५०, भोर्लेमा धुवाँकोटखोला ९१६०, हुवासमा गढीखोला ९१२० आयोजनाहरू निर्माण भएका थिए। त्यस्तै पेल्ट्रिक सेटबाट सञ्चालित ३ किलोवाटका भोक्सिङका घट्टेखोला र छहरेखोला विद्युत् आयोजनाहरू अहिले पूरै ठप्प छन्।
आयोजना निर्माण गर्न विभिन्न साझेदार निकायहरूले सक्रियता देखाएको भए पनि आयोजना बिग्रिएको लामो समयसम्म मर्मतमा कसैले चासो देखाएका छैनन्। जिल्लाका दुईबाहेक सबै गाविसमा केन्द्रीय प्रसारण लाइनको विद्युत् पुगेपछि स्थानीय सबै परियोजना बन्द भएको जिविसको ऊर्जा शाखाले जनाएको छ। ‘सुरुका दिनमा स्थानीयहरूले खुबै चासो देखाउनुभयो,’ ऊर्जा शाखा प्रमुख मन्जु शिलाकारले भनिन् ‘अहिले केन्द्रीय प्रसारणको लाइन पुगेपछि कसैलाई चासो छैन।’ आयोजना निर्माण भएको एक वर्षसम्म ऊर्जाले नै मर्मत गर्नेगरी दस प्रतिशत रकम मर्मतमा खर्चिएको उनले बताइन्।
जिल्लाका एक नगरपालिका र ४७ गाउँ विकास समितिमध्ये अहिले पाखापानी र भोक्सिङबाहेक सबै गाविसमा केन्द्रीय प्रसारणको विद्युत् पुगेको छ। आयोजना छिटोछिटो बिग्रिने, मर्मतका लागि प्राविधिक समस्या, उपकरण अभाव, उपभोक्ताले समयमा महसुल नबुझाउने लगायतका कारणले आयोजनाहरू धमाधम बन्द भएको स्थानीय सञ्चालक समितिहरू बताउँछन्। ‘सुरुका दिनहरूमा निकै कष्टका साथ पनि सञ्चालनमा ल्यायौं,’ घट्टेखोला आयोजनाको सञ्चालक समितिका अध्यक्ष नर्सिङबहादुर पुनले भने, ‘चार वर्षअघि केन्द्रीय विद्युत् आएपछि उपभोक्ताले चासो देखाउन छाडे, आयोजना पनि त्यत्तिकै भयो।’ बन्द भएका केही आयोजनाका विद्युतीय उपकरण समितिहरूले कवाडीमा बिक्री गरेका छन्। क्याङको आयोजनामा प्रयोग भएका पोलहरू केन्द्रीय आयोजनाको विद्युत वितरण गरिएको छ।
जिल्लाका सबै आयोजनाबाट एक हजार चार सय ६३ घरधुरी लाभान्वित भएका थिए। कतिपय आयोजनाहरू स्थानीयहरूले चासो देखाए पनि स्रोत र दक्ष प्राविधिकहरूको अभावका कारण बन्द भएका छन्। ‘एलसी पोर्ट र म्यागनेट बिग्रेर स्थानीय प्राविधिकले मर्मत गर्न नसकेपछि ऊर्जालाई पटकपटक सहयोग गर्न भन्यौं, उसले चासो देखाएन,’ छहरेखोला आयोजनाका सञ्चालक नुनप्रसाद गुरुङले भने, ‘उताबाट केही सहयोग नभएपछि डेढ वर्षदेखि चलेकै छैन।’ भोक्सिङकै छर्छरेखोला आयोजना निकै मुस्किलले चलेको भए पनि आयोजनाका महत्त्वपूर्ण उपकरण बिग्रिएको उनले बताए। बिग्रिएका उपकरण मर्मतका लागि उर्जामा डेढ लाख माग गरिएको भए पनि सहयोग नपाएको उनले बताए। स्थानीयहरूले एउटा बल्ब बालेको २० रुयैयाँ तिर्दै आएका थिए।
केन्द्रीय विद्युत्समेत नपुगेको भोक्सिङका सर्वसाधारणहरू अहिले विद्युतको विकल्पमा सोलारको प्रयोग गर्दै आइरहेका छन्। थोरै शुल्क बुझाएर विद्युत् उपभोग गर्दै आइरहेका सर्वसाधारणहरूले अहिले महँगो शुल्क र अनावश्यक लोडसेडिङको मार खेप्नुपरेको छ। ‘पहिला रातभरि बत्ती बालेर सय रुपैयाँ तिरे हुन्थ्यो,’ भोर्लेकी नारायण विकले भने, ‘अहिले चाहिएको बेलामा बिजुली नबाली तीन सय भन्दा धेरै तिर्नुपर्छ।’